Beatriz Collazo

Beatriz Collazo

Modified & Updated: 08 Sep 2023


Parietal cells are a remarkable and vital component of the human body’s digestive system. These cells, found in the lining of the stomach, play a crucial role in the production of stomach acid and the secretion of intrinsic factor, which aids in the absorption of vitamin B12. While most of us may not give much thought to these cells, they are truly fascinating and deserve our attention. In this article, we will explore 20 astounding facts about parietal cells that will leave you amazed at the complexity and efficiency of the human anatomy. From their unique structure and function to their importance in maintaining overall health, these facts will awaken your curiosity and appreciation for the incredible intricacies of the human body.

Table of Contents

Parietal cells are found in the lining of the stomach.

Parietal cells, also known as oxyntic cells, are specialized cells that are located in the gastric glands of the stomach.

These cells are responsible for producing gastric acid.

Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid, which plays a crucial role in the digestion of food in the stomach.

Parietal cells have a unique structure.

These cells have specialized structures called canaliculi, which are microscopic channels that allow for the secretion of gastric acid.

Gastrin stimulates the secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells.

Gastrin, a hormone released by the stomach, triggers the release of gastric acid by stimulating the parietal cells.

Parietal cells play a vital role in the absorption of vitamin B12.

These cells produce intrinsic factor, a protein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

Parietal cell dysfunction can lead to gastric acid-related diseases.

If parietal cells produce too much or too little gastric acid, it can result in conditions like acid reflux, gastritis, or peptic ulcers.

Parietal cells are regulated by complex feedback mechanisms.

The release of gastric acid by parietal cells is tightly controlled through various hormonal and neural signals.

Parietal cells have a lifespan of about 150 days.

Like other cells in the body, parietal cells have a finite lifespan and are continuously replaced to maintain proper stomach function.

Parietal cell dysfunction can contribute to vitamin deficiencies.

If the production of intrinsic factor is impaired, it can lead to vitamin B12 deficiency and subsequent health problems.

Parietal cells can be affected by certain medications.

Proton pump inhibitors, commonly used to treat acid-related disorders, can suppress the activity of parietal cells.

The secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells is highest during the night.

Parietal cells exhibit diurnal variation, with peak acid production occurring in the late evening and early morning.

Parietal cells protect against bacterial overgrowth in the stomach.

The high acidity of gastric acid produced by parietal cells helps to prevent the growth of bacteria that can cause infections.

Parietal cell hyperplasia can occur in certain medical conditions.

Conditions like Zollinger-Ellison syndrome can cause an overgrowth of parietal cells, leading to excessive gastric acid production.

Parietal cell dysfunction can result in malabsorption of nutrients.

Impaired acid production by these cells can interfere with the breakdown and absorption of key nutrients from food.

Parietal cells play a role in the body’s immune response.

These cells produce substances such as cytokines and chemokines, which help regulate immune system activity in the stomach.

Parietal cells can be affected by chronic stress.

Long-term stress can alter the function of parietal cells and contribute to gastrointestinal disorders.

Parietal cell function declines with age.

As we age, the number and activity of parietal cells decrease, which can impact digestion and nutrient absorption.

Parietal cells have a close relationship with the enterochromaffin-like cells.

These cells, found in the stomach lining, produce histamine, which in turn stimulates gastric acid secretion by parietal cells.

Parietal cell dysfunction can be diagnosed through specific tests.

Medical professionals can assess parietal cell function by conducting tests such as gastric acid analysis or measuring levels of intrinsic factor antibodies.

Understanding parietal cell function is essential for treating stomach-related disorders.

Insights into the regulation and function of parietal cells are crucial for developing targeted therapies for conditions like gastric ulcers and acid reflux.


In conclusion, parietal cells are truly fascinating components of the human anatomy. These specialized cells play a crucial role in the production of gastric acid, which aids in the digestion of food. From their unique structure to their remarkable capabilities, parietal cells have captivated the interest of scientists and medical professionals alike.Through the secretion of hydrochloric acid, parietal cells contribute to maintaining the pH balance in the stomach, protecting against pathogens, and facilitating the absorption of certain nutrients. Their ability to regenerate and adapt to changing conditions is truly remarkable.While our understanding of parietal cells continues to evolve, these 20 astounding facts highlight just how important and complex these cells are. From their involvement in intrinsic factor production to their potential link to certain health conditions, parietal cells are a topic of ongoing research and exploration.As we delve deeper into the intricacies of human anatomy, parietal cells serve as a reminder of the incredible complexity and interconnection of our bodily systems.


1. What is the function of parietal cells?

Parietal cells are responsible for the production and secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, aiding in the digestion of food.

2. Where are parietal cells located?

Parietal cells are found in the lining of the stomach, specifically in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa.

3. Can parietal cells regenerate?

Yes, parietal cells have the ability to regenerate and adapt to changing conditions, ensuring the continuous production of gastric acid.

4. Are parietal cells involved in the absorption of nutrients?

Yes, parietal cells play a role in facilitating the absorption of certain nutrients in the stomach, such as vitamin B12.

5. Do parietal cells have any connection to health conditions?

Parietal cell antibodies are associated with autoimmune conditions like pernicious anemia, where the body mistakenly attacks these cells.