We know Queen Cleopatra of Egypt in modern society as one of the most powerful and successful queens in ancient human history. She was a highly intelligent woman, and in so many ways, ahead of her time. Historians often depict her as an exceedingly great beauty, one that could seduce any man she wanted. We also consider Queen Cleopatra to be talented in many, many aspects. These include her great leadership, her taste for the arts, and her physical abilities. Apart from being the last known ruler of the Egyptian empire, there is much more to Cleopatra than most people are aware of.
Did you know her life had many sad moments, too? For instance, she was ousted from power and sent into exile by her very own brother, Ptolemy XIII. Cleopatra’s tactics were quite similar to those of Ptolemy. She had Mark Antony order the death of her sister Arsinoe to retain control of power. To call Cleopatra ambitious would be an understatement. She was a go-getter in every sense of the word. Cleopatra was never afraid to go after what she wanted. In many ways, she refused to embrace cultural norms, instead she took those norms and reinvented them to her advantage. Whether you agree with Cleopatra’s ways or not, no one can deny that she lived a very fascinating life. To know more about this fascinating woman, have a look into the history of this ruler with our collection of Cleopatra facts. May you enjoy all the Cleopatra facts we present!
- Cleopatra VII Philopator was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt.
- According to ancient records, Cleopatra died at the age of 39.
- Cleopatra is recorded to have around 3 siblings who were also involved with Egyptian politics.
- There are a total of 7 princesses with the name Cleopatra that is credited for ruling over Egypt.
- Cleopatra took over the throne of Egypt at the early age of 18.
- Cleopatra is famously known for being the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt.
- Her father is Ptolemy XII Auletes who was the former king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
- Cleopatra’s mother is presumably Cleopatra VI Tryphaena who served as queen before her.
- Cleopatra is also a descendant of the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy I Soter.
- Following the death of Cleopatra, Egypt quickly became a province of the Roman Empire.
- The native language of Cleopatra is known as Koine Greek.
- Cleopatra is also considered to be the sole ruler to learn the Egyptian language.
- Cleopatra is believed to be responsible for building up the economy of Egypt.
- She is noted to be one of the few Egyptian rulers to embrace Egyptian culture.
- Cleopatra was also involved in a scandalous love affair with Mark Antony.
- Cleopatra is responsible for establishing trade with several Arab nations.
- Cleopatra was also considered to be a popular ruler among the people of Egypt.
- She is also famous for her relationships with Julius Caesar.
- Cleopatra is also considered to be the representative of the romantic femme fatale.
- She had a total of 4 children with different lovers.
Cleopatra was cautious with her daily diet.
According to ancient records, they considered Cleopatra to be very particular about the foods that she ate during her time as the Queen of Egypt. Historians stated that during this period, many people in Egypt were precursors of the Mediterranean diet and often enjoyed simple meals that revolved around meat and also a variety of fish.
Translations of ancient papyruses have also stated that Queen Cleopatra often enjoyed serving stuffed pigeons. Other foods typically included in meals were seasonal vegetables and fava bean soup. Some dishes also included mutton, nuts, figs, honey, and Greek wine to please Queen Cleopatra’s palate. Cleopatra facts you need to know if you want to follow her diet!
Cleopatra was not Egyptian by birth.
Shocking Cleopatra facts! According to historians, the family origins of Cleopatra traces back to Macedonian Greece and Ptolemy I Soter. It also connects this family line to one general who served Alexander the Great. This would mean that while Queen Cleopatra was born in Egypt and became its ruler, they do not consider her as an Egyptian by ethnicity because of her Greek ancestry.
Ptolemy I Soter took the reign of Egypt after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. This followed the launch of its Greek-speaking rulers that would last for nearly three centuries long. Cleopatra was not ethnically Egyptian, but she acknowledged and fully embraced its culture and the people. She also went beyond previous rulers of Egypt and studied its history and language to show her love for the land.
Cleopatra’s eyeliner was beneficial for health maintenance.
During her time, Cleopatra would typically enhance her appearance using several natural methods. However, she also made use of a variety of products available in her time. Historians state that the makeup worn by Egyptians contained several ingredients that would often take a significant period to create before being able to use. They say that the ancient Egyptians believed that wearing certain makeup would serve them protection from the Gods and keep them from falling ill. They believed the thick eyeliner trend during the time was to help prevent particular eye infections that could cause blindness if left untreated.
Historians stated that at a young age, Cleopatra could speak multiple languages.
From a young age, Cleopatra studied how to speak, read, and write in Greek. She also picked up multiple other languages, including Egyptian along the way. They also considered her as more educated than her other relatives. This included her immediate family, which served as a powerful tool for her during her reign as the Queen of Egypt.
As she grew up, Cleopatra became more wise and cunning. She also used whatever she could to gain power over her brothers. This was so that she could maintain her ruling over the Egyptian dynasty without interference. Because of her education and knowledge of Egyptian culture, she was also more favored by the people of Egypt compared to her husbands.
Over the years, Cleopatra and her stories became more featured in many films and shows.
Cleopatra has been the subject of multiple modern-day literature pieces, films, and also television programs. More modern depictions and representations of Cleopatra show her to be extremely beautiful and power-hungry. In many other variations of her history, we also see Cleopatra as a dictator and rules over Egypt with an iron fist. Regardless of what kind of representation we see over time, Cleopatra remains to be one of the most well-known figures of her time in today’s modern world.
Ancient texts state that Cleopatra could play both the harp and the flute perfectly.
Cleopatra showed great proficiency in music and the arts. These texts also state that Cleopatra could gracefully perform pieces on the harp and flute to entertain important guests.
According to other ancient papyrus, Cleopatra learned how to play the harp on her own as part of her plan into seducing Julius Caesar. In many versions of this story, Julius was always impressed by Cleopatra and fell in love with her intelligence, talent, and cunning nature.
Several modern video games also feature the Egyptian Queen.
Several modern video games often feature the Egyptian dynasty and its history to its settings. In these games, the well-known Queen Cleopatra has also made appearances in popular titles such as Assassins Creed. They introduce Cleopatra in Assassin’s Creed II in a glyph puzzle via the paintings featured in the game.
During the gameplay, they briefly explain parts of her history to the player as hints in solving the puzzles. In the game, she also appears as a woman wearing ancient Egyptian clothing and makeup. Her vocals come from Zora Bishop, a known voice actress in the gaming industry.
The name Cleopatra means ‘glory of her father’.
In other translations, the name can also mean ‘Her father’s fame’. Since she was a young girl, her father often favored her over her other siblings because she showed signs of great intelligence. Because of this she became tutored in several topics from a young age.
Cleopatra is also the 7th princess in her lineage to hold this name where her daughter is the last and final princess who carries the name of Cleopatra.
Contrary to popular belief, Cleopatra was not above the average beauty standards of her time.
Cleopatra is famous worldwide for her contributions to the Egyptian empire and for being one of the most powerful queens in recorded human history. In many ancient records, they often described Cleopatra to be of great beauty that could compete with the beauty of a goddess or greater. However, historians have determined that her appearance recorded in ancient sculptures and paintings may be far from any beauty standards during that time.
Upon examining old carvings and sculptures, they concluded Cleopatra had an enormous nose and strong jawline, which made her appear more masculine in some ways. While this may not be up to par with the modern world’s beauty standards, some believe that this could be acceptable in the old Egyptian standards of beauty.
Her son, Caesarion, could have been the next ruler after Cleopatra’s death.
Caesarion is the eldest son of Cleopatra and the result of her affairs with Julius Caesar. He is known for being the last known sovereign entity of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. When he was born, they expected him to rule after the passing of his mother, Cleopatra.
However, after the death of his mother, Octavian ordered Caesarion’s death to prevent him from taking over the throne of Egypt so that he may rule and have the Roman empire take over. Caesarion passed away in 30 BC not long after the death of Cleopatra.
Cleopatra created a drinking club with Mark Antony.
Cleopatra facts that can make you drunk. Back in 41 BC, Cleopatra began a drinking club together with her Roman lover, Mark Antony, called the ‘Inimitable Livers’ club. During its peak, the group stated it was a drinking club dedicated to the cult of the Greek god of wine and winemaking, Dionysus. They formed this group to show appreciation towards the Greek god and celebrated him.
However, some interpreted this club as an excuse to lead a life of degeneracy and corruption. In this drinking club, they held nightly feasts and preparations in secret from the public. During this time, Cleopatra and Mark Antony would also disguise themselves to spend evenings playing pranks on the residents of Egypt.
Mark Antony was the one who sent for Cleopatra’s audience, which led them to their first meeting.
According to ancient documents, Cleopatra and Mark Antony first met in Rome. During this time, Cleopatra was still the mistress of Julius Caesar. However, their first formal meeting was while Mark Antony was staying in the city of Tarsus in 41 BC, where he grew fixated on Cleopatra.
After their first formal meeting, Cleopatra understood the value of the relationships she formed with men in power. After realizing this, she continued to seduce Mark Antony for years to make him loyal only to her. During their relationship, Mark Antony also fixated on getting the upper hand against Cleopatra in terms of elegance and splendor.
Cleopatra believed scents could hold power over people.
During her time as ruler of Egypt, Cleopatra also developed her perfume in a personal workshop. She established this workshop because she believed certain scents could hold power over certain individuals. Today, many people have attempted to recreate this scent as archeologists would describe it to be like that of the Chanel No. 5 perfume. After extensive research, a team of archeologists from the University of Hawaii at Manoa stated they consider this perfume as one of the most prized scents in the world.
They found evidence of its remains north of Cairo in the Nile Delta, which they founded around 4500 BC. The team also took inspiration from this and began trying to recreate the scent using formulas discovered and translated from ancient Greek texts. Cleopatra facts that definitely smell good.
There is also a brand of cigarettes named after Cleopatra.
Cleopatra has a cigarette brand named after her! Eastern Tobacco Company owns and manufactures Cleopatra cigarettes. The company headquarters is located in Egypt, but the products are also sold in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
Cleopatra cigarettes were first introduced in 1961 and have also expanded their products into several varieties. These varieties include Cleopatra Golden, Lights, Luxe, Super Star, and also Super Luxe. While the cigarettes do not have any connection to the Egyptian queen, some variations of her history assume she died of drug overdose or drug use.
Cleopatra also wrote a medical treatise.
She called her medical paper ‘Cosmetics’ and started her work on medical and pharmacological findings. The written scripture showed ancient Egyptian methods and several varieties of remedies for common health issues. Some of these health issues included minor problems such as dandruff and hair loss.
Apart from the remedies that could help in curing these ailments, Cleopatra also researched methods to keep herself strong and healthy. This was so that she could be able to continue ruling over the Egyptian dynasty. These written notes are one of the many physical pieces of evidence that signifies Cleopatra’s intelligent attributes.
There is a legend that states that Cleopatra used to take baths in warm donkey milk.
According to ancient records, they knew Cleopatra for her great beauty and intellect. These traits made her well-known and loved throughout all of Egypt. However, historians stated she had to maintain a strict beauty regimen to keep her fair complexion and youthful appearance.
This regimen involved several treatments and also included a strict dietary regimen. One of these methods was by bathing in warm donkey milk each day. This would help improve the tone of her skin and also keep it soft. Historians have yet to find evidence to confirm these legends but believe that the Roman Empress Poppaea set these as a popular bathing ritual soon after the death of Cleopatra.
The American show ‘Drunk History’ also made a feature episode for Cleopatra.
Drunk History is a comedic American television series produced by Comedy Central. The show acts as a parody to the ‘Funny or Die’ web series made by Derek Waters in 2007. The series first premiered on Comedy Central in 2013 and was renewed for multiple seasons over the years where international versions are also being produced.
In the 6th season of the series, they feature Cleopatra in the episode titled ‘Bad Blood’. In this episode, the actress Aubrey Plaza plays her role. The episode summarizes Cleopatra’s relationship with her sister, Arsinoe, and their struggle to rise to power over the throne of Egypt.
They never found or recovered the ancient tomb of Cleopatra.
According to archeologists, the tomb of Cleopatra has remained lost for over 2,000 years now. They have also stated that its discovery is highly unlikely during this era. However, some theories suggest the tomb may be in the Ptolemaic ruins found at Taposiris Magna in Alexandria, Egypt. Yet this remains a theory, as there is no current evidence found that supports this idea.
Since her death, the location of the tomb of Cleopatra remains to be one of the most intriguing topics for not only archeologists all over the world but also the public of the world. Do you know where it might be?
They also feature Cleopatra in various works of art throughout history.
According to archeologists, many surviving art pieces from the time of the ancient Egyptians show evidence of how the Egyptians worshipped Cleopatra. These art pieces also acted as representations of her reputation during her reign, where it reveals intricate narratives to her life.
Many surviving paintings show her relationships with her lovers and also her immediate family. These paintings show how she fought with her siblings for power over the Egyptian dynasty. Unfortunately, many of these pieces also contain racial ambiguity by European painters to reinvent them. They did this to comply with the paintings set to the European beauty standards.
Cleopatra successfully seduced her lovers to improve Egypt's relations with other nations.
When Cleopatra was 14, she made a great impression on Mark Antony, which led him to fall madly in love with her. Mark Antony was a member of the army of Gabinius and paid by the father of Cleopatra during this time. Because of this, she also took an interest in him to secure an army for herself during her time on the throne later on.
In 48 BC, Julius Caesar and Cleopatra began getting involved with each other while Julius served as the ward of her brother and husband. Cleopatra saw value in keeping a relationship with Caesar. During their relationship, Caesar remained loyal to her, and she boasted joyously of her affair with him to the public.
Cleopatra Selene II is the sole daughter of Queen Cleopatra VII.
During ancient Egyptian times, they made Cleopatra Selene II the ruler of Cyrenaica and also Libya for a short while. After the death of her mother, Cleopatra VII, they moved her and her brothers to Rome. Once they moved, they stayed in the home of Octavian’s sister where she, later on, married Juba II of Numidia.
After this time, Cleopatra Selene II became a dominant influence on Mauritania’s political decisions. She especially influenced him regarding the trade and construction projects in their kingdom. In this time, historians find they had also become wealthier. They later passed on their power onto their son who could become the successor.
Historians closely relate the death of Cleopatra to the decline of the Egyptian economy.
After the unspecified death of Queen Cleopatra VII, the Egyptian economy quickly fell. When this occurred, Rome established a complete takeover of the empire and made it into one of its provinces. During this takeover, historians believe Octavian used the riches of Cleopatra. Octavian used this money to pay off his veterans and other associates during the conversion of Egypt into the Roman empire.
After the death of Cleopatra, they also killed her children on Octavian’s orders. This was to prevent a rightful successor from taking the throne and fighting against his forces. Historians also note Octavian could live a long life ruling a prosperous and expanding Roman Empire until his passing in 14 AD.
Cleopatra also once led a naval army to fight alongside Mark Antony.
During the Liberator’s Civil War in 43 BC, Cleopatra sided with the Roman Second Triumvirate. Historians note that Caesar’s grandnephew and Mark Antony formed this group. During this time, Cleopatra also began her affair with Mark Antony. As their relationship escalated, Mark Antony later on, became reliant on Cleopatra.
He often asked her for funding and aid in military powers during their planned invasions. This allowed Cleopatra to take command of one of Mark Antony’s naval fleets. Cleopatra used this and sent it into battle against Octavian and his allies, which later on led to a war of propaganda. This event triggered a formed rebellion which later on caused Mark Antony to take his own life.
In modern times, Cleopatra has now become a well-known icon in modern pop-culture.
Ever since the time of the Victorian Era, Cleopatra has become a popular figure in old and modern popular culture. They also consider her as one of the most famous icons in Egyptomania. Cleopatra has also been the subject of a good deal of renaissance and baroque art such as musicals, paintings, poetry, and many other forms of artwork.
While her legacy remains to survive in the present day, there have also been several reimagining and alterations to her story which remain highly popular until now. Several of these works include parodies, theories, and other unconfirmed myths about the Egyptian Queen.
Shakespeare once wrote about Cleopatra’s affinity for rose water.
In the play ‘Antony and Cleopatra’, William Shakespeare references Cleopatra’s affinity for rose water. Shakespeare shows how Cleopatra would coat her cedarwood ships in its scent. The play was first performed by the acting company known as the King’s Men in 1607 and later on, first appeared in print in 1623.
William Shakespeare stated he based the play on the 1579 English translation of ‘Plutarch’s Lives’ done by Thomas North. The tragedy mainly takes place in the Roman Republic and Egypt. The play is also famous for following the relationship between Cleopatra and Mark Antony during the period of the Sicilian revolt. Its storyline also covers events until the death of Cleopatra during the time of the last war of the Roman Republic.
Cleopatra fought against the army of the Roman Emperor Octavian in the Battle of Actium.
We also know the Battle of Actium as the last battle of the Roman Republic. Historians state that this battle mainly took place at sea between the fleet of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. The battle took place in 31 BC on the Ionian Sea, near the promontory of the Actium found in Greece.
However, despite the combined forces of Cleopatra and Mark Antony, Octavian gained victory over his opponents. This allowed him to become a powerful icon in the Roman Empire. After their loss in battle, Mark Antony and Cleopatra took their own lives at separate times. They did this to help them cope with the defeat and repercussions of going to war with Octavian and his army.
Cleopatra’s army also became involved in the Battle of the Nile.
In 47 BC, Julius Caesar and Cleopatra also combined their military force to fight against Queen Arsinoe IV and King Ptolemy XIII. This was so that they could secure the throne of Egypt. During the beginning of the war, the Roman army that was loyal to Ptolemy was at an advantage. This was because their opponents failed to secure their positions while waiting to ambush their opponents.
However, the Egyptians loyal to Cleopatra turned the battle around by pinning down their opponent’s flanking forces. They also fired missiles from the Egyptian ships to expose a gap between the Roman and Egyptian contingent. After Caesar captured Ptolemy, he lifted the siege of Alexandria and gave the throne to Cleopatra, along with one of her brothers.
Cleopatra once gave birth to twins.
After the return of Mark Antony to Rome in 40 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to fraternal twins. She named them Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. According to historians, she named the twins after the sun and moon, respectively. She named Helios after his father. Cleopatra also had Selene take on the name of Cleopatra because of the tradition of their bloodline. After the death of their mother, they moved the twins to Rome to live with Octavian’s sister. Years later, the two became involved with the Roman Republic’s political affairs.
Mark Antony divorced his wife because he wanted to be with Cleopatra more.
After becoming involved with Cleopatra and escalating their affair, Mark Antony quickly divorced his former wife. Over time, Mark Antony became highly infatuated with Cleopatra. He also provided her with anything that she had wished for or asked of him to do. During his divorce from Octavian’s sister, Octavian himself became furious with Mark Antony.
This, later on, caused a trigger that eventually led to the events of the last battle of the Roman Republic. However, despite the chaos that their affair had caused, Cleopatra became proud of this. She often publicly boasted about her affairs and the success that came from them.
Cleopatra also married both of her brothers to preserve the purity of their bloodline.
Much like several royal bloodlines and houses, members of the Ptolemaic empire often married within the family. This ensured that the bloodline of the family remained pure with royal lineage. To keep this tradition going, Cleopatra was eventually married to both of her adolescent brothers. Both brothers also served as her ceremonial spouse and co-regent during different times while she ruled as Queen of Egypt.
During this time, she and her brothers all took part in making and discussing political decisions for the sake of their empire. This also involved creating strategies and proposals on how to create allies with neighboring dynasties and empires. By doing so, it would grant them significant strengths in their relations and armies.
Later on, Cleopatra killed off both of her brothers to remain the ruler of Egypt.
Cleopatra killed off all her siblings to strengthen her rule over the Egyptian empire. By getting rid of them, she also secured her role on the throne. This event caused Cleopatra to become the sole ruler of Egypt until she gave birth to a legal successor to the throne later on.
During this time, Cleopatra also became romantically involved with Julius Caesar and also Mark Antony. She, later on, had children from both partners at separate times. Because of this occurrence, they also consider Cleopatra as the sole female pharaoh that is a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Some African American scholars depict Cleopatra as an African heroine in its version of her tales.
Over the years, there have been several controversies regarding Queen Cleopatra VII and the true details regarding her background. According to some studies conducted by African American scholars, they believe that Cleopatra might have been an African woman. However, other historians state that this is unlikely.
This is because of evidence that shows she was ethnically Greek and a member of a long bloodline from the Ptolemaic dynasty. According to Duane W. Roller, there is no solid evidence that confirms Cleopatra being African. He also claims that this study is not a credible source. More evidence also points against this in several coins and restored sculptures from ancient times. These artifacts depict Cleopatra as a Greek woman in style.
They considered Cleopatra to be incredibly intelligent for her time.
Historians found Cleopatra received higher levels of education for a woman of her time since she was young. This caused her to grow independent and stronger later on. Despite the criticisms she faced for being a woman, Cleopatra continued to show significant actions in her leadership.
This allowed her to become one of the most highly respected and admirable leaders in world history. During her time, Cleopatra showed signs of skilled usage of public communication. She also had exceptional skills in diplomacy. Over time, her skills helped her earn the respect of the people in the Egyptian empire. Because of her actions, they also considered Cleopatra as one of the most successful queens of Egypt.
They also noted Cleopatra to have manipulated the Egyptian religion.
During her childhood, Cleopatra identified herself with the image of the goddess Isis in Egyptian religion. She also portrayed herself as the goddess throughout her lifetime. Historians also found that Cleopatra took a great interest in the Egyptian tradition and its religion. Ancient texts denote she embraced it as if it was her own, despite being of Greek descent.
Other ancient Egyptian texts also show that Cleopatra is the only member of her royal family to have learned the Egyptian language. Cleopatra often communicated with her subjects in her people’s language instead of using Greek. This led the public to see her as a goddess. Ultimately, it made them want to support and praise Cleopatra during her time as Queen.
There are several versions regarding the story of her death.
According to historians, there is no confirmed evidence regarding the death of Queen Cleopatra VII. Several ancient texts and stories have also stated that there may have been several possibilities for the cause of her death. However, some of the most popular theories stated Cleopatra allowed a poisonous snake to bite her.
Cleopatra believed it could grant her immortality as stated by Egyptian religion. Many others also believe that Cleopatra took her own life so that she would die as a queen. Cleopatra took her life because she did not want to die as a slave of Octavian.
Historians state that Cleopatra always enjoyed making many elaborate costumes.
Cleopatra saw herself as the goddess Isis from a very young age. This was mostly because of the influence of Egyptian culture and her studies. Since she was a small girl, Cleopatra believed she was special. As part of this identity, Cleopatra also consistently wore elaborate and elegant garments. She believed that this would make her seem godly among the public.
Cleopatra would also often show up with elaborate entrances. Each time, this caused her to become the center of attention in a room. These entrances included giant curtain openings, long elegant dresses, and a selection of servants at her side emphasizing her importance and status.
There is also a candy distributor in the United States called Cleopatra Candy.
Cleopatra Candy is a family-owned business founded in 1999 in the United States. Its founders have based the company in Brooklyn, New York. The company distributes candy to its clients every week where they supply sweets such as candies and chocolates. The company also supplies toys and other foods such as nuts.
These goods get distributed to local supermarkets around the city of New York and also some parts of New Jersey. Cleopatra Candy also selects, packages, and designs its products, which is a trademark of its brand in the candy market.
While the company has the name Cleopatra Candy, the logo of the business features the head of a cobra snake and not the Egyptian Queen.
Cleopatra’s first act as queen was to begin a voyage to Hermonthis.
They executed this voyage to install a new sacred Buchis Bull. This served as an intermediary for the god named Montu noted in the Egyptian religion. After taking over the throne, Cleopatra also faced several difficulties and issues. These included problems such as the famine caused by the drought in the annual flooding of the Nile.
Cleopatra also inherited her father’s debts, which were equivalent to 17.5 million drachmas. They owed the debt to the Roman Empire, which she fully paid off. Since then, Cleopatra had slowly improved the economy of Egypt. Over time, her actions as a ruler have proven to be successful, and they considered her to be a better Queen compared to her predecessor and father.
They also believed Cleopatra to have used henna as a source of natural nail polish.
According to several Egyptian texts, women often used henna to paint their nails. During that time, they considered it as a part of a popular beauty trend. Historians believe that Queen Nefertiti was the first woman to introduce this trend. She made use of red dye to paint her nails to show her symbol and power as a royal member.
Later on, Cleopatra did the same by painting her nails with reddish-brown henna. This highlighted her hands and fingers. This also provided an illusion that made her appear more elegant and beautiful. We can find the evidence that supports this in Egyptian mummies, where the nails of their fingers have dark-colored henna stains.
There have also been claims that the children of Cleopatra were illegitimate.
Historians state Cleopatra gave birth to children from both Julius Caesar and also Mark Antony. However, because none of her children’s fathers were of royal lineage, all of her children were illegitimate. This automatically caused them to be unqualified to take on the throne of Egypt after Cleopatra. During this time, Cleopatra’s children would have been bastards and not entitled to any of the royal benefits that came with the pure bloodline.
Cleopatra strongly believed that she was a goddess related to Isis, the mother of Horus.
From a young age, Cleopatra had identified herself to be a descendant of the goddess Isis. She also often considered herself to be special. According to Egyptian scriptures, they considered Isis as the goddess of the moon. She was also the child of the Egyptian god of earth, Geb, and the Egyptian goddess of the sky, Nut.
In Egyptian mythology, Isis was also the wife of Osiris, who played the role of the god of the underworld. The mythology also states that she bore a son named Horus. They believed the goddess Isis is also the goddess of life and magic. This is because, in Egyptian mythology, she often protected women and children. She also healed those that were ill, which made her one of the greatest goddesses of ancient Egypt.
There have also been several operas and plays that center on Cleopatra and her history.
For hundreds of years, Cleopatra’s history and legends have become a well-known tale in modern society and popular culture. Over time, they have also made some imagery and adaptations to share her tale. We know Cleopatra today as one of the most successful and powerful queens is not only in Egyptian history but overall world history.
While many ancient texts regarding the history of Cleopatra remain lost, writers, artists, and storytellers continue to implement their adaptation. These also include their theories which they apply into their world to introduce Cleopatra to new audiences. Cleopatra’s stories are often told as a tragedy in plays and poetry. These stories also hint at the several outcomes of her reign as Queen of Egypt.
Cleopatra also spent some time living in Rome during her ruling.
In 44 BC, historians state Cleopatra traveled to Rome as a client Queen. During this time, she stayed with Julius Caesar in his villa. This was also around the time of the assassination of Julius Caesar, which Cleopatra ordered.
She had Julius Caesar killed so that she could name her son, Caesarion, as the co-ruler for the throne of Egypt. By doing so, Cleopatra could set her son as the successor for the throne after her reign. However, this could not happen because of Octavian killing Caesarean later on after the death of Cleopatra.
Apart from her achievements and major events, there is not much known about Cleopatra.
According to ancient scripts and texts, there are only a few fragments of Cleopatra’s past that became discovered. Apart from her success, not much other personal information became discovered about her. This also includes fragments of her childhood before she came to become the ruler of Egypt. Some historians believe that much of Cleopatra’s life also remains untranslated. This is because many of these pieces of ancient scriptures remain missing to this day. However, other historians have stated that they believe such records never existed. These include scriptures of the less trivial details of her life.
Cleopatra never got divorced from any of her husbands.
Despite being married to multiple men, Cleopatra never underwent the proper procedures of divorce. There is also no sound evidence found of there being a similar procedure. This may be because polygamy was not taboo during this era. People were free to wed as many spouses as they wanted legally.
Throughout her reign, Cleopatra also continued her marriages with her two lovers under pleasant conditions. She maintained these relationships to take advantage of the power they wielded. As a result, she received partial control over both men’s armies. This also granted her access to their resources which she used to fight against the Roman Republic.
They also consider Cleopatra as one of the most successful and powerful queens in world history.
Despite being criticized for being a woman, Cleopatra showed great promise as a leader to their people and empire. Apart from helping raise the Egyptian economy, Cleopatra could also form ties with powerful allies. Some of these notable allies also include the neighboring Arab nations.
These allies later on, proved to be of great help to her in securing her position as the Queen of Egypt. Her position as Queen also influenced Roman and Egyptian politics during crucial periods in time. Cleopatra could also take advantage of the Nile river during her reign. This allowed her to provide the empire with an abundance of necessary resources such as fertile fields and muddy banks.
They also briefly mention Queen Cleopatra in the Bible.
Scholars mentioned that the name Caesar Augustus has led to the connection of Cleopatra being mentioned in the Bible. Caesar Augustus is the same person as Octavian. This man also became famous after becoming the ruler of the Roman Empire and holds credit for the fall of Egypt.
The Bible states Augustus is also the one who ordered the census that had brought Joseph to his wife, Mary. Many scholars stated that this is evidence that can connect religious and historical facts. They also believe that it may interweave the events that have occurred in both stories.
They also considered Cleopatra as a gifted philosopher for a woman of her time.
Apart from her political talents, Cleopatra was also a brilliant scholar. Many stated that she could write well and also discuss philosophical ideas and challenge these thoughts. They also considered Cleopatra as a gifted chemist who created her perfume factory to aid in her political advancements.
Her studies in this field had also led her into other interests. These included scholarly interests such as studying mathematics, oratory, and astronomy. Many also described her as a ruler who significantly helped in elevating the ranks of other scholars from her time. Because of her intelligence, many high-ranking scholars often enjoyed spending time with her. During this time, they would often discuss several types of intellectual topics.
Cleopatra was the one who ordered the assassination of Julius Caesar while she was in Rome.
To attain her goals and pursuit of power, Cleopatra acknowledged the benefits of allying with Julius Caesar. However, after remarrying her younger brother, Cleopatra forced herself to have Julius Caesar killed.
After Cleopatra traveled to Rome to stay in his villa, Julius Caesar set out for Egypt on business. During this time, Cleopatra had ordered his assassination while she was away. After they killed Julius Caesar, Cleopatra returned to Egypt with her son and brother to continue her rule over Egypt.
Cleopatra became forced to flee Alexandria in the Assassination of Pompey at one point.
Upon returning to Egypt, the Roman politician Pompey got murdered under the orders of the King Ptolemy of Egypt. Julius Caesar had forced the followers of Pompey to move to Greece during this time. Because of this, it caused Cleopatra to withdraw to the region of Thebes against her wishes. By 48 BC, she had reached Roman Syria. There, she formed an invasion force that would help her return to Egypt. This army would also help her fight against her brother and reclaim her ruling over Egypt.