Shaine Langston

Shaine Langston

Published: 13 Sep 2023


Cappadocia, located in central Turkey, is known for its stunning natural landscapes and unique rock formations. However, what lies beneath the surface is equally fascinating and captivating. The region is home to a network of underground cities that date back thousands of years and provide a glimpse into the rich history and ingenuity of its inhabitants.

In this article, we will explore 17 captivating facts about the Cappadocia underground cities, shedding light on their purpose, construction, and the secrets they hold. From their use as hiding places during ancient times to their architectural marvels, these underground cities are a testament to the human spirit’s resilience and creativity.

So, join us on this journey as we delve into the intriguing world of Cappadocia’s underground cities and discover the hidden wonders that lie beneath the surface.

Table of Contents

Unique Underground Cities

Cappadocia is home to a series of fascinating underground cities that were carved into the soft volcanic rock. These cities served as hiding places and defensive strongholds for the early Christian communities who lived in the region.

Ancient Origins

The underground cities of Cappadocia have been in existence for thousands of years, with some estimates suggesting that they were first built as early as the 8th century BC. They are a remarkable testament to the ingenuity and resourcefulness of the people of that time.

Extensive Network

The underground cities of Cappadocia form a vast network of interconnected tunnels, rooms, and chambers, extending several levels below the ground. Some of these cities are believed to have housed thousands of people.

Protection from Invaders

One of the main purposes of these underground cities was to provide protection from invading armies. The complex tunnel systems and hidden entrances allowed the inhabitants to defend themselves and launch surprise attacks when necessary.

Ingenious Architecture

The architecture of the underground cities is truly remarkable. They have well-ventilated rooms, kitchens, storage areas, and even places of worship. Some cities even had animal stables and wineries.

Self-Sufficient Communities

The underground cities were designed to be self-sufficient, with their own water supply systems, ventilation shafts, and wells. They were able to sustain life for extended periods, even during times of siege or conflict.

Hidden Escape Routes

The underground cities have secret tunnels and hidden escape routes that allowed the inhabitants to flee quickly in times of danger. These secret passages made it difficult for invaders to locate and capture the inhabitants.

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Due to their historical and cultural significance, the underground cities of Cappadocia have been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since They continue to be a major tourist attraction for visitors from all over the world.

Different Levels of Depth

Each underground city in Cappadocia consists of different levels that vary in depth. Some cities have as many as eight levels, offering a fascinating insight into the complex underground life of the past.

Carved by Hand

The entire construction process of these underground cities was carried out by hand. The inhabitants used simple tools like chisels and hammers to carve out the rock, demonstrating their incredible craftsmanship.

Hidden Living Spaces

The underground cities of Cappadocia had hidden living spaces that were cozy and comfortable. These spaces were cleverly designed to maximize living area while providing necessary facilities for daily life.

Underground Churches

One of the most fascinating features of these cities is the presence of underground churches. These churches were adorned with stunning frescoes and served as places of worship for the early Christians.

Durable Construction

The use of volcanic rock in the construction of the underground cities made them incredibly durable. The rock provided natural insulation, keeping the interior cool in summer and warm in winter.

Extravagant Decorations

The underground cities were not only functional but also beautifully decorated. Intricate wall carvings, elaborate frescoes, and stunning architectural details can still be seen in some of the preserved areas.

Tourism and Economy

The underground cities have played a significant role in boosting the tourism and economy of the Cappadocia region. They attract thousands of visitors each year, contributing to the local businesses and livelihoods.

Ongoing Discoveries

Despite centuries of exploration, there are still areas within the underground cities that remain unexplored. Ongoing excavations and archaeological research continue to uncover new treasures and expand our understanding of these ancient marvels.

Mythical Legends

The underground cities of Cappadocia have given rise to various mythical legends and folklore. Tales of hidden treasures, secret passageways, and ancient curses add an air of mystery and intrigue to these captivating underground cities.

With their unique architecture, historical significance, and fascinating features, the underground cities of Cappadocia continue to enthrall visitors from around the globe. Exploring these ancient marvels offers a glimpse into the ingenuity and resourcefulness of past civilizations, making it a truly unforgettable experience for all who venture underground.


Cappadocia’s underground cities are an awe-inspiring testament to ancient engineering and human resilience. From their origins as hidden refuges to their evolution into thriving communities, these subterranean marvels have captivated visitors from around the world. Whether you’re exploring the depths of Derinkuyu or marveling at the intricate tunnels of Kaymakli, Cappadocia’s underground cities offer a unique glimpse into the past.With their fascinating history, hidden chambers, and labyrinthine tunnels, it’s no wonder that Cappadocia’s underground cities continue to amaze and intrigue archaeologists, historians, and curious travelers alike. These captivating sites serve as a reminder of the ingenuity and resourcefulness of our ancestors.So, the next time you find yourself in Cappadocia, make sure to delve beneath the surface and discover the secrets that lie within these remarkable underground cities. Your journey through time and space will leave you with a deep appreciation for the rich history and cultural heritage of this extraordinary region.


Q: How were the underground cities in Cappadocia built?

A: Cappadocia’s underground cities were built by carving into the soft volcanic rock formations found in the region. Skilled craftsmen chiseled intricate tunnels, chambers, and ventilation systems, creating a vast underground network.

Q: How many underground cities are there in Cappadocia?

A: While more than 200 underground cities have been discovered in Cappadocia, only a handful are open to the public. Some of the most well-known ones include Derinkuyu, Kaymakli, and Özkonak.

Q: Why were these cities built underground?

A: The underground cities in Cappadocia were primarily built for defensive purposes, serving as hidden havens during times of invasion and religious persecution. They also provided shelter and storage for the local communities.

Q: How deep do the underground cities go?

A: The depth of the underground cities varies, with some reaching up to eight stories below ground level. The deepest level in Derinkuyu, for example, is approximately 85 meters deep.

Q: Are the underground cities safe to explore?

A: Yes, the open underground cities in Cappadocia have been made safe for visitors. However, it is important to follow the designated paths and guidelines provided by the tour guides to ensure a safe and enjoyable experience.