Bernice Rawson

Written by Bernice Rawson

Modified & Updated: 21 May 2024

Sherman Smith

Reviewed by Sherman Smith


Mongolia, a landlocked country in East Asia, is known for its vast and rugged landscapes, rich history, and unique nomadic traditions. With a population of over 3 million people, Mongolia is a fascinating destination that offers a blend of ancient traditions and modern developments. With a land area spanning over 1.5 million square kilometers, Mongolia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, allowing for a sense of tranquility and untouched wilderness.

In this article, we will explore 42 fascinating facts about Mongolia that showcase its history, culture, natural wonders, and more. From the legendary Genghis Khan to the enduring traditions of the nomadic herders, Mongolia’s past and present come together to create a captivating tapestry. So, let’s dive into the enchanting world of Mongolia and discover some truly fascinating facts about this remarkable country.

Key Takeaways:

  • Mongolia, known as the “Land of the Eternal Blue Sky,” offers a rich nomadic heritage, unique traditions, and stunning landscapes, making it a paradise for nature lovers and adventure seekers.
  • With its famous Gobi Desert, ancient history of Genghis Khan, and traditional arts, Mongolia is a captivating destination that promises unforgettable experiences for those seeking adventure and cultural exploration.
Table of Contents

The Land of the Eternal Blue Sky

Mongolia is often referred to as the “Land of the Eternal Blue Sky” due to its clear and sunny weather. With over 250 sunny days each year, it is a paradise for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers.

Nomadic Traditions

Mongolia is known for its rich nomadic heritage. Even in the modern age, around 35% of the population still follows a semi-nomadic or nomadic way of life, herding livestock and moving their homes, known as gers or yurts, across the vast plains.

Genghis Khan, the Great Emperor

Mongolia was the birthplace of Genghis Khan, the legendary warrior and founder of the Mongol Empire. Under his leadership, the Mongols created the largest contiguous empire in history, extending from Asia to Europe.

The World’s Second Largest Landlocked Country

Spanning an area of 1.6 million square kilometers, Mongolia is the world’s second-largest landlocked country, bordering Russia to the north and China to the south, east, and west.

The Gobi Desert

Mongolia is home to the vast and captivating Gobi Desert, one of the world’s largest deserts. Despite its arid conditions, the Gobi Desert supports a diverse range of flora and fauna, including the elusive and endangered snow leopard.

Naadam Festival

The Naadam Festival is Mongolia’s biggest and most celebrated event. It showcases the “Three Manly Games” of wrestling, horse racing, and archery, which are deeply rooted in Mongolian culture and tradition.

The Mongolian Horse

Mongolia is renowned for its strong and sturdy horses, which have played a significant role in the country’s history and nomadic way of life. The Mongolian horse is highly adapted to the harsh climatic conditions and is known for its endurance and agility.

Famous Mongolian Throat Singing

Mongolia is known for its unique form of singing, called throat singing or khoomii. This mesmerizing technique allows singers to emit multiple tones simultaneously, creating a haunting and magical melody.

The Flaming Cliffs

The Flaming Cliffs, also known as Bayanzag, is a famous landmark in the Gobi Desert. It is renowned for its striking red sandstone formations and is considered one of the world’s most important paleontological sites, with numerous dinosaur fossils discovered in the area.

The Mongolian Empire’s Postal System

In the 13th century, under the reign of Genghis Khan, the Mongolian Empire implemented an efficient postal system known as the “Yam.” It allowed messages to be relayed swiftly across vast distances, contributing to the empire’s military and administrative success.

Vast Mineral Resources

Mongolia is rich in mineral resources, including coal, copper, gold, and uranium. The mining industry plays a vital role in the country’s economy, attracting international investment and driving economic growth.

The Mongolian Steppe

The Mongolian steppe is a vast grassland that covers a significant portion of the country. It is a haven for diverse wildlife, including antelopes, gazelles, and wild horses, and offers a stunning and picturesque landscape.

Buddhist Influence

Buddhism has deeply influenced Mongolian culture and spirituality. The country is home to numerous monasteries and temples, and Buddhism is practiced by a significant portion of the population.

Traditional Mongolian Cuisine

Mongolian cuisine reflects the nomadic lifestyle and local ingredients. Traditional dishes such as khorkhog (meat cooked with hot stones), buuz (steamed dumplings), and airag (fermented horse milk) provide a unique culinary experience.

The Famous Mongolian Throat Bow

Mongolian archery is a revered sport and a key aspect of Mongolian culture. The traditional Mongolian bow, known as the throat bow, is unique in design and has been used by Mongolian warriors throughout history.

The Ancient Capital of Karakorum

Karakorum, located in central Mongolia, was the ancient capital of the Mongol Empire. It served as the political, cultural, and economic center during the reign of Genghis Khan.

The Endangered Przewalski’s Horse

Mongolia is home to Przewalski’s horse, the only truly wild horse species remaining in the world. Once extinct in the wild, conservation efforts have helped reintroduce this endangered species back into their natural habitat.

The Mongolian Flag

The flag of Mongolia features three vertical stripes of red, blue, and red, with the Soyombo symbol in the center. It represents the country’s Buddhist heritage and national identity.

The Mongol Rally

The Mongol Rally is an annual event that challenges participants to drive through diverse terrains across multiple countries, starting from Europe and finishing in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. It is an ultimate test of endurance and adventure.

The Monument of Genghis Khan

The Statue of Genghis Khan, located in the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar, is one of the largest equestrian statues in the world. The monument pays tribute to the legendary leader and offers stunning views of the surrounding landscape.

The Golden Eagle Festival

The Golden Eagle Festival is a unique cultural event held annually in western Mongolia. It showcases the traditional art of hunting with golden eagles, as well as traditional costumes, music, and dance.

The Land of Dinosaur Discoveries

Mongolia is a haven for dinosaur enthusiasts, with numerous dinosaur fossils and skeletons discovered throughout the country. The rich paleontological heritage has made Mongolia one of the top destinations for dinosaur research and discovery.

The Mongolian Currency

The currency of Mongolia is called the Mongolian Tögrög (MNT). It features images of notable Mongolian historical figures, landscapes, and native wildlife.

Tsagaan Sar, the Lunar New Year

Tsagaan Sar is the Mongolian Lunar New Year celebration, marking the beginning of spring. It is a time for families to come together, exchange gifts, and partake in traditional rituals.

The Kazakh Eagle Hunters

In western Mongolia, the Kazakh people practice the ancient tradition of eagle hunting. This unique skill involves training golden eagles to assist in hunting prey such as foxes and hares.

The Giant Statue of Buddha

The Giant Statue of Buddha, located in Erdene, is one of Mongolia’s most iconic landmarks. Standing at 54 meters tall, it is one of the largest statues of Buddha in the world.

The Trans-Siberian Railway

Mongolia is an integral part of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which is the longest railway line in the world. It connects Moscow with Vladivostok, passing through Mongolia along the way.

The Largest Cashmere Exporter

Mongolia is the largest exporter of cashmere in the world. The country’s harsh climate provides the ideal conditions for raising cashmere goats and producing high-quality cashmere products.

The Mongolian Language

Mongolian is the official language of Mongolia and is spoken by the majority of the population. It belongs to the Mongolic language family, which has several dialects.

The Mongolian Ger

The ger, also known as the yurt, is the traditional dwelling of the Mongolian people. It is a portable and easily assembled structure, perfectly suited for the nomadic lifestyle.

The Traditional Mongolian Wrestling

Traditional Mongolian wrestling, known as Bökh, is a highly popular sport and an integral part of Mongolian culture. It involves intricate techniques and displays of strength and skill.

The Mongolian Three Jewels

The Three Jewels of Mongolia, also known as the “gun, horse, and book,” are symbolic representations of the country’s traditional strengths and values. They represent the warrior spirit, nomadic lifestyle, and intellectual pursuits, respectively.

The Mongolian National Dish

Buuz, a steamed dumpling filled with meat and vegetables, is considered the national dish of Mongolia. It is a staple of Mongolian cuisine and often enjoyed during festive occasions.

The Mystery of Genghis Khan’s Tomb

The final resting place of Genghis Khan remains a mystery. Despite extensive searches, the exact location of the tomb has never been confirmed, adding to the enigma surrounding the great emperor’s legacy.

The Mongolian Eagle Hunters Festival

The Eagle Hunter’s Festival is an annual event held in Western Mongolia, where eagle hunters from across the region showcase their skills and compete in various traditional hunting challenges.

The Mongolian Ger Fest

The Ger Fest is a celebration of the traditional Mongolian ger and the nomadic way of life. It features cultural performances, traditional games, and exhibitions on Mongolian traditions and customs.

The Mongolian Lunar Calendar

Mongolia follows the traditional lunar calendar. This calendar is based on the cycles of the moon and plays a significant role in determining important events and festivals throughout the year.

The Mongolian National Flag

The national flag of Mongolia features the Soyombo symbol, which represents the unity and spiritual heritage of the Mongolian people. It is a symbol of pride and national identity.

The Mongolian National Anthem

The national anthem of Mongolia is called “Mongolyn Öömiin Hölöö,” which translates to “State Anthem of Mongolia.” It is a powerful and patriotic composition that reflects the spirit and pride of the Mongolian people.

The Mongolian Traditional Art

Mongolian traditional art encompasses various forms, including painting, sculpture, and handicrafts. It often depicts scenes from nomadic life, nature, and Buddhist themes.

The Mongolian Plateau

The Mongolian Plateau is a vast highland region that extends across Mongolia and parts of China and Russia. It is characterized by its rugged terrain, mountain ranges, and vast grasslands.

The Beauty of Mongolia

Mongolia’s breathtaking landscapes, from the pristine beauty of Lake Khovsgol to the stunning sand dunes of the Gobi Desert, make it a haven for nature enthusiasts and photographers.

There you have it – 42 captivating facts about Mongolia that showcase the country’s rich history, unique traditions, and natural wonders. The “Land of the Eternal Blue Sky” is waiting to be explored, offering a truly unforgettable experience for adventurers and culture seekers alike.


In conclusion, Mongolia is a fascinating country with a rich history, unique culture, and breathtaking landscapes. Its nomadic heritage, ancient traditions, and the vast expanse of the Mongolian steppes make it a truly intriguing destination to explore. From the impressive Gobi Desert to the iconic Mongolian horse culture, there is something for everyone to discover in this hidden gem of Central Asia.

Visiting Mongolia offers a once-in-a-lifetime experience to witness the nomadic lifestyle, encounter friendly people, and witness the untamed beauty of nature. Whether you want to trek through the wilderness, discover ancient ruins, or immerse yourself in local festivals, Mongolia offers a wide range of experiences that will leave you with lasting memories.

So, if you’re seeking adventure, cultural immersion, and a deeper understanding of a country that has preserved its traditions for centuries, then Mongolia should be at the top of your travel bucket list!


Q: What is the capital city of Mongolia?
A: The capital city of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar.

Q: What are the official languages spoken in Mongolia?
A: The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian.

Q: Does Mongolia have a nomadic culture?
A: Yes, Mongolia has a strong nomadic culture that is still practiced by a significant portion of the population.

Q: What is the best time to visit Mongolia?
A: The best time to visit Mongolia is during the summer months from June to August when the weather is mild for outdoor activities.

Q: Are there any famous landmarks in Mongolia?
A: Yes, Mongolia is home to several famous landmarks such as the Gobi Desert, the Flaming Cliffs, and the Erdene Zuu Monastery.

Q: Is Mongolia a safe country to travel to?
A: Mongolia is generally a safe country to travel to, but like any destination, it is advisable to take precautions and be aware of your surroundings.

Q: What is the traditional cuisine of Mongolia?
A: The traditional cuisine of Mongolia includes dishes such as khorkhog (meat stew cooked with hot stones), buuz (steamed dumplings), and airag (fermented mare’s milk).

Was this page helpful?

Our commitment to delivering trustworthy and engaging content is at the heart of what we do. Each fact on our site is contributed by real users like you, bringing a wealth of diverse insights and information. To ensure the highest standards of accuracy and reliability, our dedicated editors meticulously review each submission. This process guarantees that the facts we share are not only fascinating but also credible. Trust in our commitment to quality and authenticity as you explore and learn with us.