Ediva Robison

Ediva Robison

Modified & Updated: 08 Sep 2023

Source: Nationalgeographic.org

Plankton, despite their microscopic size, play a crucial role in our planet’s ecosystem. These tiny organisms, ranging from plants to animals, float and drift in water bodies such as oceans, lakes, and rivers. While they may often go unnoticed by the human eye, their impact on marine life and the overall health of the environment is immense.

In this article, we will explore 13 fascinating facts about plankton that will shed light on their importance and the incredible diversity within their ranks. From their vital role in oxygen production to being the base of the marine food chain, plankton hold a key position in sustaining life in our oceans. So, let’s dive into the world of these miniature organisms and discover the secrets they hold beneath the surface of the water.

Table of Contents

Plankton comes in various shapes and sizes.

From microscopic bacteria to larger species like jellyfish, plankton encompasses a wide range of organisms of different shapes and sizes.

There are two main categories of plankton: phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms, often single-celled, that produce their energy from sunlight. Zooplankton, on the other hand, are small, drifting animals that consume phytoplankton or other zooplankton.

They serve as a major source of oxygen production.

Phytoplankton, through photosynthesis, produce a significant amount of the Earth’s oxygen, contributing to the overall balance of atmospheric gases.

Plankton migrates vertically in the water column.

During the day, plankton often moves closer to the surface to take advantage of sunlight for photosynthesis. At night, they migrate back down to deeper waters to avoid predators.

Some plankton have bioluminescent properties.

Certain types of plankton, such as dinoflagellates, possess the ability to emit light, creating mesmerizing underwater displays of glowing organisms.

Plankton blooms can be seen from space.

Large concentrations of phytoplankton can create vibrant, swirling patterns in the ocean visible from satellites, known as “blooms.”

Some plankton can produce harmful algal blooms.

Certain species of phytoplankton, when they multiply excessively, can release toxins that are harmful to other marine life and can even pose a threat to human health.

Plankton provides a critical food source for marine organisms.

Zooplankton, such as krill, serve as a primary food source for many marine animals, including whales, fish, and seabirds.

Plankton can have a significant impact on climate change.

Phytoplankton absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere during photosynthesis, helping to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases and reduce ocean acidification.

Plankton plays a role in carbon sequestration.

As plankton dies and sinks to the ocean floor, it sequesters carbon, playing a crucial role in the Earth’s carbon cycle.

Plankton can travel long distances through ocean currents.

Due to their small size and the power of ocean currents, plankton can be transported across vast distances, influencing ecosystems far from their place of origin.

Plankton is sensitive to environmental changes.

Due to their reliance on specific temperature and nutrient conditions, plankton populations can be greatly affected by climate change and pollution.

Plankton research is essential for understanding and protecting marine ecosystems.

Studying plankton helps scientists monitor and assess the health of ocean ecosystems, providing valuable insights into the impacts of human activities and the effectiveness of conservation efforts.

Next time you gaze upon the vastness of the ocean, remember the diverse and intricate world of plankton which lies beneath the surface. Without these tiny organisms, the marine ecosystem as we know it would cease to exist.


In conclusion, plankton plays a vital role in the ecosystem of our planet. These tiny organisms are responsible for producing a significant portion of the Earth’s oxygen, serving as a food source for countless marine animals, and contributing to the overall health and balance of our oceans.

Despite their small size, plankton are incredibly diverse and fascinating creatures. From diatoms to zooplankton, they come in various forms and have unique adaptations that enable them to thrive in different environments.


Q: What is plankton?

A: Plankton refers to a diverse group of small organisms that drift and float in bodies of water. They can be divided into two main categories: phytoplankton, which are plant-like organisms, and zooplankton, which are animal-like organisms.

Q: How important are plankton to the environment?

A: Plankton are crucial to the environment. They are responsible for approximately half of the world’s oxygen production through photosynthesis. Additionally, they form the base of the marine food chain and are consumed by a wide range of marine animals, supporting entire ecosystems.

Q: Are all plankton microscopic?

A: No, not all plankton are microscopic. While most plankton are tiny, some species can be visible to the naked eye, such as jellyfish or certain types of zooplankton. However, the majority of plankton are microscopic and require a microscope to be properly observed.

Q: Where can plankton be found?

A: Plankton can be found in all types of aquatic environments, including oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and even ponds. They are present in both freshwater and saltwater habitats and can be found in varying concentrations depending on the location and environmental conditions.

Q: Can plankton be harmful?

A: While most plankton are harmless, some species can be harmful. Certain types of phytoplankton, known as harmful algal blooms, can release toxins that are harmful to marine life and humans who consume contaminated seafood.

Q: Are there different types of plankton?

A: Yes, there are different types of plankton. The main divisions are phytoplankton and zooplankton. Phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms, including diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Zooplankton are animal-like organisms, including copepods, krill, and jellyfish.

Q: How do plankton reproduce?

A: Plankton reproduce in various ways depending on the species. Phytoplankton reproduce through cell division, where one cell splits into two. Zooplankton can reproduce sexually or asexually, with some species laying eggs while others give birth to live offspring.

Q: Can plankton be found in the deep ocean?

A: Yes, plankton can be found in the deep ocean. While their density decreases with depth, some species of plankton are adapted to life in extreme environments, including the abyssal zone. These deep-sea plankton have unique adaptations that enable them to survive under extreme pressure and low light conditions.

Q: Can plankton be used for medical purposes?

A: Yes, plankton have shown potential for medical purposes. Certain species of phytoplankton produce compounds with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Scientists are actively studying plankton and their potential for pharmaceutical applications.

Q: Are plankton affected by climate change?

A: Yes, plankton are affected by climate change. Rising ocean temperatures and increased acidity can disrupt the delicate balance of plankton populations, affecting their abundance and distribution. These changes can have ripple effects throughout the marine food web.