Tildie Nabors

Tildie Nabors

Modified & Updated: 08 Sep 2023

Source: En.wikipedia.org

Birjand, located in eastern Iran, is a city steeped in history and cultural significance. With its rich heritage and diverse attractions, Birjand offers visitors an intriguing blend of ancient ruins, traditional architecture, and vibrant markets. As a major center for trade and commerce, the city has evolved over the years to become a thriving hub of economic activity in the region.

In this article, we will delve into 39 fascinating facts about Birjand, shedding light on its historical landmarks, cultural treasures, and unique features. Whether you are planning a visit to this enchanting city or simply have an interest in learning about different cultures, this comprehensive guide will provide you with a deeper understanding of what makes Birjand such a remarkable destination.

Table of Contents

A Historical City

Birjand is a historical city located in the South Khorasan province of Iran. With a rich cultural heritage and a fascinating history, Birjand offers visitors a glimpse into the past.

Ancient Origins

Birjand dates back to at least the 3rd century AD, making it one of the oldest cities in Iran. Its ancient origins can be seen in the architecture and archaeological sites scattered throughout the city.

Strategic Location

Birjand is strategically located on the Silk Road, an ancient trade route that connected the East and the West. Its location made it an important hub for merchants and travelers throughout history.

Cultural Melting Pot

Birjand has been influenced by various cultures throughout its history, including Persian, Arab, and Turkic. This cultural diversity is reflected in the city’s architecture, cuisine, and traditions.

Carpet Weaving Center

Birjand is famous for its exquisite hand-woven carpets. The city has been a center for carpet weaving for centuries, and the intricate designs and vibrant colors of Birjand carpets are renowned worldwide.

Agriculture and Pistachio Production

Birjand is known for its fertile soil and agricultural activities. The region is particularly famous for its pistachio orchards, which produce high-quality pistachios that are exported to various countries.

Qanats: Ancient Water System

Birjand is home to several ancient qanats, an underground water system that has been used for irrigation and water supply for centuries. These qanats are remarkable engineering feats and are considered cultural heritage sites.

Birjand Fortress

The Birjand Fortress, also known as Arg-e Birjand, is an impressive historical site in the city. Built during the Qajar dynasty, the fortress offers panoramic views of Birjand and its surroundings.

Nasir al-Mulk Mosque

The Nasir al-Mulk Mosque, also known as the Pink Mosque, is a stunning architectural masterpiece in Birjand. Its colorful stained glass windows create a mesmerizing display of light and colors inside the mosque.

Solar Power Plants

Birjand is leading the way in renewable energy with its solar power plants. These plants harness the region’s abundant sunlight and contribute to the country’s efforts in sustainable development.

Traditional Handicrafts

Birjand is a hub for traditional handicrafts, including pottery, metalwork, and embroidery. These handicrafts showcase the skill and creativity of local artisans and are popular among tourists.

Birjand University of Medical Sciences

Birjand is home to the Birjand University of Medical Sciences, a renowned institution for medical education and research. The university plays a vital role in promoting healthcare in the region.

Local Cuisine

The culinary scene in Birjand offers a taste of traditional Iranian cuisine. From aromatic saffron-infused dishes to hearty stews and kebabs, the local cuisine is a treat for food enthusiasts.

Shokatiyeh Park

Shokatiyeh Park is a beautiful green space in Birjand, ideal for picnics and outdoor activities. The park features colorful flower gardens, playgrounds, and walking paths that provide a tranquil escape from the city.

Cultural Festivals

Birjand hosts various cultural festivals throughout the year, celebrating music, art, and local traditions. These festivals showcase the vibrant cultural heritage of the city and attract visitors from far and wide.

Famous Historical Figures

Birjand has been the birthplace of several famous historical figures, including poets, scholars, and musicians. Their contributions to art and literature have left a lasting impact on Iranian culture.

Tomb of Mirza Reza Kermani

The Tomb of Mirza Reza Kermani is a significant historical site in Birjand. Mirza Reza Kermani was an influential figure in the constitutional movement of Iran and played a pivotal role in shaping the country’s history.

Birjand Regional Museum

The Birjand Regional Museum showcases the rich history and culture of the region. It houses an extensive collection of artifacts, documents, and artworks that provide insights into Birjand’s past.

Natural Beauty

Birjand is surrounded by breathtaking natural landscapes, including mountains, deserts, and lush green valleys. Nature enthusiasts can explore hiking trails, go camping, or simply enjoy the serenity of the countryside.

Saffron Production

Birjand is known as the saffron capital of Iran. The region’s favorable climate and fertile soil make it ideal for growing saffron, one of the world’s most expensive and sought-after spices.

Traditional Music

Birjand has a vibrant traditional music scene, with local musicians performing classical Persian music and regional folk songs. The city’s music festivals are a celebration of the rich musical heritage of the region.

Handicrafts Bazaar

The Handicrafts Bazaar in Birjand is a bustling marketplace where locals and tourists can find a wide range of traditional crafts, including carpets, ceramics, textiles, and jewelry. It is the perfect place to shop for souvenirs.

Land of Nomads

Birjand and its surrounding areas are inhabited by nomadic tribes, known as “Qashqai” and “Baluch.” These nomads have a unique way of life and preserve their cultural traditions while moving across the vast landscapes.

Traditional Clothing

The traditional clothing of Birjand reflects the region’s cultural heritage. Men often wear long tunics and baggy pants, while women don vibrant and intricately embroidered dresses.

Silk Production

Birjand has a long history of silk production. The city’s skilled silk weavers create luxurious fabrics that are highly sought after for their quality and craftsmanship.

Shrine of Abdul Hamid

The Shrine of Abdul Hamid is a sacred religious site in Birjand. People visit the shrine to pay their respects to Abdul Hamid, a revered spiritual figure associated with miracles.

Mehran River

Mehran River flows through Birjand, providing a scenic backdrop to the city. The river is a source of irrigation for nearby farmlands and a popular spot for boating and picnicking.

Traditional Wrestling

Birjand is known for its traditional wrestling style called “Pahlavani.” This ancient martial art combines physical strength, agility, and spirituality and is deeply rooted in Persian culture.

Local Souvenirs

Visitors to Birjand can take home unique souvenirs such as saffron, hand-woven carpets, locally made pottery, and traditional handicrafts. These souvenirs are a reminder of their memorable trip to the city.

Mount Hezar

Mount Hezar is a majestic mountain range located near Birjand. It offers breathtaking views, challenging hiking trails, and opportunities for mountain climbing, attracting adventure enthusiasts from around the world.

Birjand Grand Mosque

The Birjand Grand Mosque, also known as the Jame Mosque, is a significant religious site in the city. Its stunning architecture and intricate tilework make it a must-visit for architecture enthusiasts.

National Jewelry Center

The National Jewelry Center in Birjand houses a collection of exquisite traditional jewelry pieces. Visitors can explore the craftsmanship and beauty of Iranian jewelry through various exhibitions.

Local Markets

Birjand’s local markets are vibrant and bustling with activity. From the bustling main bazaar to the spice markets and handicrafts markets, these vibrant spaces offer a glimpse into the daily lives and trades of the locals.

Traditional Tea Houses

Traditional tea houses, known as “Chaikhanehs,” are an integral part of the social fabric in Birjand. These cozy establishments offer a relaxed atmosphere where people gather to sip tea, chat, and enjoy the local hospitality.

Birjand International Airport

Birjand is served by the Birjand International Airport, connecting the city to various domestic and international destinations. The airport plays a crucial role in facilitating travel and tourism in the region.

Cultural Heritage

Birjand is home to numerous historical sites and cultural heritage buildings. Preserving and protecting these sites is an important endeavor to ensure their significance is recognized for generations to come.

Traditional Festivals

Birjand celebrates a range of traditional festivals throughout the year, including Norooz (Iranian New Year), Mehregan, and Yalda Night. These festivals bring communities together and showcase the cultural richness of the city.

Traditional Dance

Birjand has its own unique style of traditional dance called “Dokhtaran-i-Virjan,” which is performed mainly by women. This graceful dance is characterized by fluid movements and vibrant costumes.

Warm Hospitality

The people of Birjand are known for their warm hospitality and kindness towards visitors. Travelers to the city can expect to be greeted with open arms and treated to traditional Iranian hospitality.

So there you have it, 39 fascinating facts about Birjand. From its rich history and cultural heritage to its stunning natural beauty and warm hospitality, Birjand offers a truly memorable experience for visitors. Whether you’re exploring its ancient sites, indulging in its delicious cuisine, or immersing yourself in its vibrant traditions, Birjand is a city that will leave a lasting impression.


In conclusion, Birjand is a fascinating city with a rich history, vibrant culture, and breathtaking natural landscapes. From its historic sites and traditional bazaars to its picturesque gardens and surrounding mountains, Birjand offers a unique blend of old-world charm and modern development.

Whether you’re interested in exploring ancient architecture, immersing yourself in local traditions, or simply enjoying the beauty of nature, Birjand has something to offer everyone. With its warm and welcoming residents, delicious traditional cuisine, and a variety of cultural and outdoor activities, Birjand is a hidden gem waiting to be discovered.

So pack your bags, head to Birjand, and prepare to be captivated by all that this enchanting city has to offer.


1. What is the best time to visit Birjand?

The best time to visit Birjand is during spring and autumn when the weather is pleasant and the landscapes are at their most breathtaking.

2. Are there any famous landmarks in Birjand?

Yes, Birjand is home to several notable landmarks such as the Arg-e Tabriz, Birjand Citadel, and the Jameh Mosque of Birjand.

3. Can I experience traditional Persian culture in Birjand?

Absolutely! Birjand offers a unique opportunity to immerse yourself in traditional Persian culture through its bustling bazaars, local handicrafts, and music and dance performances.

4. Are there any outdoor activities in Birjand?

Yes, nature lovers can enjoy activities such as hiking in the nearby Dastkand mountains, exploring the stunning Kal Jeni Canyon, or visiting the picturesque Shokat Abad Wildlife Refuge.

5. How can I get around Birjand?

Birjand has a well-connected transportation system, including taxis and buses, making it easy to navigate the city and explore its surrounding areas.

6. Is Birjand a safe city for tourists?

Yes, Birjand is generally considered a safe city for tourists. However, it is always advisable to take necessary precautions and follow local guidelines to ensure a smooth and enjoyable trip.