Quick Facts\r\n\r\n \tCause: Air pressure, temperature and moisture differences\r\n \tLocation: Troposphere\r\n \tTypes of Storm: 13\r\n \tSeasons: Winter, spring, summer, fall\r\n \tStudy: Meteorology\r\n \tHighest temperature recorded: 134 \u00b0F at Furnace Creek, CA, USA\r\n \tLowest temperature recorded: \u2212128.6 \u00b0F at Vostok Station, Antarctica\r\n \tWettest place on Earth: Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India\r\n \tDriest place on Earth: Quillagua, Antofagasta Region, Chile\r\n \tSpace weather: Solar winds, coronal mass ejections\r\n\r\n\r\nWeather Occurs in the Troposphere\r\nWeather facts inform us that the troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth\u2019s\u00a0atmosphere. The troposphere is where the magic of weather occurs. The troposphere makes up 75% of the Earth\u2019s atmosphere. It holds most of the atmosphere\u2019s water vapor, too \u2013 99% to be precise. While we may think of the atmosphere as being uniform around the globe, it is actually thicker over the tropics and thinner near the Arctic.\r\nWeather Is Caused by Air Pressure, Temperature and Moisture Differences\r\nAt its most basic, weather is caused by differences in air pressure, temperature, and moisture. Different types of weather phenomena are created when these ingredients are mixed together in different proportions. For example, to make a tornado, mix some cold polar air at a high altitude with some hot, warm tropical air at low altitudes!\r\nThere Are Three Ways to Make Rain\r\nThere are three different ways to create rain or snow on Earth: frontally, orographically, and convectively. Frontal rain occurs when two masses of air meet. Orographic rain occurs when the shape of the land causes clouds to form. Convective clouds create convective rain. These clouds form due to instability in the atmosphere.\r\n13 Different Types of Storms Affect Earth\r\nIt may seem rather apt, given that it\u2019s widely considered an unlucky number, but there are 13 different types of a storm here on Earth. Some of these storms can only happen in certain regions because of the geography and climate of those areas. Weather facts tell us that tornadoes, windstorms, dust devils, squalls and gales are primarily recognized by their wind patterns. Hailstorms, ice storms, snowstorms, blizzards, ocean storms, thunderstorms, and tropical cyclones are recognized by the precipitation they bring. You may know tropical cyclones better by one of their other names, depending on where in the world you live: typhoons, hurricanes, tropical depressions or tropical storms.\r\nMeteorology Is the Study of the Atmosphere\r\nMeteorology is the name for the scientific study of the atmosphere and includes the weather forecasting we hear on the news or see on our smartphones daily. It\u2019s an interdisciplinary field that helps to explain weather phenomena.\r\nAristotle Is the Father of Meteorology\r\nAristotle wasn\u2019t just a brilliant philosopher; he\u2019s also credited as being the founder of meteorology. In 350 BC, Aristotle penned a book called Meteorology. Within its covers, he detailed a process that meteorologists have since termed the hydrologic cycle. He did all of this without the use of the fancy computers that are now in popular use within the discipline.\r\nThe Upanishads Dip into The Study of the Weather\r\nCenturies before Aristotle wrote his famed book, the Indian\u00a0Upanishads\u00a0featured the description of a specific meteorological event \u2013 the formation of clouds. These beautiful verses also contemplated the climate and the seasonal cycles caused by the Earth\u2019s orbit. No one is quite sure when the Upanishads were written, but they are believed to be around 2,500 years old.\r\nChristopher Columbus Experienced a Cyclone in 1494\r\nWeather facts indicate that while on one of his numerous missions,\u00a0Christopher Columbus\u00a0experienced a tropical cyclone. His notes were the first written account of this type of storm by a European.\r\nA Medici Established the First Weather Network\r\nA member of the historically famous Medici family,\u00a0Ferdinando II de Medici, created the world\u2019s first known weather observing network. With stations in Warsaw, Florence, Bologna, Milan, Paris, and other cities, this network collected meteorological data and sent it to Florence regularly.\r\nThe UK Had the World\u2019s First Weather Service\r\nRobert Fitzroy, famed captain of the\u00a0HMS Beagle, was appointed the first Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade in the United Kingdom, which later became the UK Meteorological Office. Weather facts inform us that the former captain ran the first meteorological service in the world and started the eventually widespread tradition of printing weather forecasts in newspapers in 1860.\r\nSometimes Snow Is Pink\r\nYou might be surprised if it snows in the alpine regions of Colorado or in California\u2019s Sierra Nevada Mountains\u2026 sometimes, pink snow is spotted! According to weather facts, the phenomenon is caused by algae called Chlamydomonas nivalis. This reddish-tinged algae only live in cold climates and can sometimes turn a winter wonderland a fetching shade of pink.\r\nBlown Away at 231 Miles Per Hour\r\nIn April 1934, a storm in Mount Washington, New Hampshire, reared its ugly head with a wind gust measuring an incredible 231 miles per hour. It was the fastest surface wind speed observed by a human.\r\nOver an Inch of Rain Fell in One Minute in Maryland in 1956\r\nThe most rainfall ever recorded in the space of a minute occurred in Unionville Maryland, on April 7 1956. On that day, 1.23 inches of rain fell from the sky in just 60 seconds. Over 50 years later, it\u2019s still the highest recorded rainfall in one minute.\r\n530,000 Have Died Because of Weather from 1994-2013\r\nNon-government organization Germanwatch reported that extreme weather has killed more than 530,000 people between 1994 and 2013. In that time frame, weather is believed to have cost the world over $2 trillion in financial losses.\r\nSouth Dakota Is Home to the Largest Hailstone\r\nThe largest recorded hailstone measured 8 inches and weighed almost two pounds. It fell on July 23, 2010, in Vivian, South Dakota. The United States\u2019 National Weather Service verified the stone\u2019s size and weight.\r\nWeather Facts \u2013 Facts about the Weather Summary\r\nThe weather we experience is created in the troposphere, the lowest layer of the Earth\u2019s atmosphere. While Earth isn\u2019t the only place in the universe with weather, it is this weather that affects us the most. Weather is caused by differences in air pressure, temperature, and moisture. Aristotle is credited as being the father of meteorology, which is the study of the Earth\u2019s atmosphere and weather, though the study of weather may have predated his book Meteorology by a millennium if we consider the discussions of weather in the Upanishads.