- Full Name: Annelies Marie “Anne” Frank
- Birth: June 12, 1929 in Frankfurt, Weimar Germany
- Death: February 1945, in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Nazi Germany
- Cause of Death: Typhus
- Nationality: German until 1941, Stateless from 1941
- Family: Otto Frank (father), Edith Frank-Hollander (mother), Margot Frank (sister)
- Memoir: The Diary of a Young Girl
- Known As: Humanist, writer, Holocaust victim
- Education: Montessori School, Jewish Lyceum
- Religion: Judaism
- Holocaust Victim: Anne Frank Is One of the Most Famous Jewish Holocaust Victims
- Location: Anne Frank’s Family Was Originally from Germany but Moved to the Netherlands
- Death: Anne Frank and Her Family Lived in a Secret Annex for 2 Years
- Home: Anne Aspired to Become a Journalist
- Career: Anne’s Father Was the Only Survivor of the Secret Annex Residents
- Family: Anne Frank Was Enrolled in the Jewish Lyceum
- Education: More Than 100,000 Copies of Anne’s Diary Were Sold in the First Edition in Japan
- Success: The Secret Annex Is Now the Anne Frank Museum
- Legacy: The Identity of Kitty Is Still a Mystery
- Character: The Exact Date of Anne’s Death Is Still Unknown
- The Diary Would Have Never Been Published if Miep Gies Had Read It
- There Have Been Allegations That the Book Was a Hoax
- Anne’s Sister Margot Also Kept a Diary
- The SS Officer Who Captured Anne Frank Bought Her Book
- Anne’s Diary Was Not Approved by All Parents, and was Called Pornographic by Some
- There Is Only One Piece of Film Footage of Anne Frank
- There Are 2 Versions of Anne’s Diary
- Anne Frank Had a Difficult Relationship with Her Mother
- Anne Frank’s Father Was Granted a Visa to Cuba In 1941
- Anne Frank Was Named One of the Most Important People of the Century
Anne Frank Is One of the Most Famous Jewish Holocaust Victim
One of the most basic Anne Frank facts is that she is one of the most well-known Holocaust victims. Growing up in a German-Jewish family when Hitler was holding power over Europe, Anne Frank witnessed firsthand the widespread discrimination and crimes against Jews. She died at the age of just 15 while in a Nazi concentration camp. The publication of her diary provided a stunning revelation of the lives of Jewish families during this dark time. Her notes and stories are among the most detailed and comprehensive works that are left from the period.
Anne Frank’s Family Was Originally from Germany but Moved to the Netherlands
There are many Anne Frank facts regarding her family background. Anne Frank was born in Germany, where her family was originally from. When Anne was four years old, the Nazis took control over Germany. Anne’s father, Otto Frank, feared for the family’s safety and decided to move to the Netherlands. Anne was born a German, but her citizenship was lost after the move.
The family settled in Amsterdam, where Otto Frank set up a business. This was where the Frank family lived until they were taken into concentration camps in 1944.
Anne Frank and Her Family Lived in a Secret Annex for 2 Years
While many other Jewish families in Amsterdam were taken away by the Nazis, Anne Frank and her family were fortunate enough to be prepared, and went into hiding early in the war. After her sister Margot received a call-up for a working camp, the family moved to a secret hiding place in her father’s office building on July 6, 1942.
With the help of Victor Kugler, Johannes Kleiman, Miep Gies, and Bep Voskujil, coworkers of Anne Frank’s father, the family was able to survive in their confined hiding spot for over two years. On August 4, 1944, however, the family was discovered after a tip-off to the authorities from an anonymous informer.
Anne Aspired to Become a Journalist
One of the most well-known Anne Frank facts is that she was a talented writer. From her diary, we learn that by 1944, Anne had already expressed her wish to become a professional journalist after the war was over. She wanted to pursue her passion for writing. At first, Anne kept the diary purely to herself, mentioning more then once that no one else would ever read it. She changed her mind later on, after hearing a radio broadcast on March 28, 1944. On this day, Gerrit Bolkestein, the Dutch Education Minister, gave a speech that asked people to save diaries. The speech inspired Anne to dream of publishing her own diary after the war was over.
Anne’s Father Was the Only Survivor of the Secret Annex Residents
There were eight people living in the secret annex before it was discovered. These were the four members of the Frank family, three members of the Van Daan family, and a man named Fritz Pfeffer. After the group was discovered, they were all taken into concentration camps and were separated from each other. After the war, Otto Frank, Anne’s father, learned of his wife’s death after returning to Amsterdam. In July 1945, he met his daughter’s friend, who told him about the death of his daughters, Anne and Margot. Otto Frank was the only survivor of the group after the end of the war.
Anne Frank Was Enrolled in the Jewish Lyceum
Both Anne and her sister Margot were described as avid readers and excelled in school. Anne attended a Montessori school, where she showed great aptitude in reading and writing. Anne made many friends at this school, but she had to transfer to a different school later. After the German invasion of the Netherlands, it was dictated that Jewish children like Anne and Margot could only attend Jewish schools. This was just one of many strict segregation rules at this time. Anne and Margot were then enrolled in the Jewish Lyceum until they had to go into hiding.
More Than 100,000 Copies of Anne’s Diary Were Sold in the First Edition in Japan
Otto Frank was first able to get his daughter’s diary published in 1950. The book received positive responses and was then published in several countries around the world, including Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The book’s biggest success, however, came in Japan. The book received critical acclaim and the first edition sold out, selling more than 100,000 copies. Anne Frank was quickly recognised as a cultural figure in Japan, and is seen as a representation of young victims of the war.
The Secret Annex Is Now the Anne Frank Museum
After Anne Frank’s diary was published, the secret annex received many visitors, who were shown to the secret rooms by the employees who helped the families. By 1955, the company moved, and the building was going to be demolished to make room for a factory. Otto Frank, Anne’s father, started a campaign to preserve the building and the secret room.
In 1960, the building where the families hid was turned into a museum, now called the Anne Frank House. The museum receives millions of visitors every year. The Anne Frank House is now the third most-visited museum in the Netherlands.
The Identity of Kitty Is Still a Mystery
Anne’s diary was written in a letter format, with each entry addressed to “Kitty”. The identity of Kitty is one of the Anne Frank facts that still presents a mystery to readers. Many people speculated that Kitty refers to Anne’s pre-war friend, Kitty Egyedi. However, Anne did not mention her in any of her writings.
The most popular theory is that Kitty is a fictional character that Anne made up. Otto Frank, her father, reasoned though that his daughter may have had a real person in mind when she addressed Kitty.
The Exact Date of Anne’s Death Is Still Unknown
Because of the chaos in the concentration camp, the exact date(s) of Anne and her sister Margot’s deaths are still a mystery. In early 1945, 17,000 prisoners from the same camp were killed by a typhus epidemic.
Witnesses later reported that they had seen Anne and her sister weakened by the disease, but no one knew exactly when they had died. Margot was said to have fallen from her bunk, the shock of which killed her, while Anne died a few days later.
Initially, it was thought that the sisters’ deaths might have taken place only weeks before the camp was liberated in April 1945. However, the Frank sisters are believed to have displayed typhus symptoms in February.
Without treatment, victims often die within 12 days of the first symptoms appearing. To date, the exact location of the sisters’ graves remains unknown. There have been many attempts to discover Anne Frank facts surrounding her death; however, we may never know all about the situation, given the chaotic conditions in the camp at that time.
The Diary Would Have Never Been Published if Miep Gies Had Read It
After Anne Frank and her family had been captured from their secret hiding place, Anne’s diary was left behind with all her other belongings. Miep Gies, one of the people who helped keep the family in hiding, took the diary away before the place was searched, wanting to return it one day to Anne. After the war, when Anne’s death had been confirmed, Miep returned her diary to Otto Frank.
If she had read it, Miep said, she would have immediately burnt the book. The reason she said this was because the diary contained the names of her, her husband, and other people who helped shelter the Jewish families. The book would have served as evidence against them all, leading to probable execution. Luckily, Miep never read a word of Anne’s diary until after it was published.
There Have Been Allegations That the Book Was a Hoax
While the book has received critical acclaim since its very first edition, it has still come up against skepticism. Many people, including some famous critics, questioned the authenticity of some Anne Frank facts relating to the diary. Some called it a hoax. Surprisingly, among these skeptical critics are many Holocaust victims.
The main reason behind such skepticism is that many people cannot believe the book was actually written by a child. Some people even went as far as to suggest Anne Frank never existed. Otto Frank, Anne’s father, relentlessly fought against such false allegations in court.
In 1960, a court confirmed the authenticity of the book, by examining the handwriting in the book against Anne’s handwriting in previous letters. Later on, a forensic study was also carried out on the diary. The conclusion was that Anne’s handwriting was authentic, and that the paper, glue, and ink were indeed from the time when the diary was supposed to have been written.
Anne’s Sister Margot Also Kept a Diary
In her book, Anne described her sister Margot as a very different person from her. Margot was said to be smart with an excellent academic record. While Anne is more independent and strong-willed, Margot had a better relationship with their mother and everyone else.
In Anne’s diary, she mentioned that Margot also kept a diary during the time they were in hiding. This prompted many readers and experts to go on a search for Margot’s side of the story. So far, however, there has been no trace of Margot’s diary.
The SS Officer Who Captured Anne Frank Bought Her Book
The commander who captured Anne Frank and her family was Karl Silberbauer, an inspector in the Vienna police at the time. During the raid, Silberbauer confiscated the family’s valuables and money. He emptied Otto Frank’s briefcase to hold these valuables, and dumped the briefcase’s original contents, including papers and notebooks, on the ground. Among these papers was Anne Frank’s diary, which was later retrieved by Miep Gies.
After the war, when Anne Frank’s diary was published, Silberbauer admitted to buying her book. He wanted to find out if his name was mentioned in there. Silberbauer also later testified as to the authenticity of Anne Frank and her arrest.
Anne’s Diary Was Not Approved by All Parents, and was Called Pornographic by Some
One of the most surprising Anne Frank facts is that many parents were against the book being taught in schools. Most objections were against the unedited version, where there were parts that described Anne’s curiosity about her body and sexuality. This part was originally omitted by her father, Otto Frank, in the first edition. Later on, the unedited version was published without omitting such intimate parts. Some critics have even stranger reasons to protest Anne’s diary. In 1983, a school in Alabama even banned the book for being “a real downer”.
There Is Only One Piece of Film Footage of Anne Frank
Anne Frank’s diary has inspired several films and plays where actors and actresses reenact her life story. Examples include the Anne Frank Ballet and the choral work Annelies.
However, when it comes to real film footage of Anne Frank, there is only one short piece of footage left. The footage is part of a 1941 silent film. The film is actually footage of Anne Frank’s neighbours getting married. Anne was seen on screen for a few brief seconds when she leaned out of her window to watch the newlyweds. The film was given by the couple to the Anne Frank House after the war.
There Are 2 Versions of Anne’s Diary
Initially, Anne wrote the diary purely for herself, thinking that no one else would ever read it. This is the original, unedited version of her diary. After hearing Gerrit Bolkestein’s speech, however, Anne decided she wanted to publish her diary after the war ended. At this point, she reread what she had already written and thought that many parts would be unclear to readers, or would be too boring. Anne started to edit her own book to get it ready for publishing. In the Diary of Anne Frank: The Critical Edition, the original version is called Version A, and the later, edited one, is referred to as Version B.
Anne Frank Had a Difficult Relationship with Her Mother
One of the Anne Frank facts that we can learn from her diary is that she had a difficult relationship with her mother. Anne was closer to her father, while her sister Margot was more attached to their mother, Edith Frank. In the original version of Anne Frank’s diary, her father Otto decided to edit out some of the most heated comments that Anne wrote about her mother.
Despite the difficult relationship between mother and strong-willed teenage daughter, Edith Frank was described as a very devoted mother. Witnesses claimed that Edith Frank saved every last bit of her food for her daughters before they were transported to a different camp. Edith Frank died on January 6, 1945 in Auschwitz.
Anne Frank’s Father Was Granted a Visa to Cuba In 1941
After the Germans invaded the Netherlands, Otto Frank saw the rising threats against his family and other Jewish families. In 1938 and 1941, he attempted to get visas for his family to emigrate to the United States or Cuba. This process was described as extremely costly, complicated and corrupted at the time. In 1941, Otto Frank was granted a single visa to Cuba, just 10 days before Nazi Germany declared war on the United States. It wasn’t clear if the visa ever reached Otto, but it was canceled after the war declaration. Because the plan to emigrate didn’t work out, Otto Frank resorted to his backup plan, and prepared a hiding place for his family, known to us now as the secret annex.
Anne Frank Was Named One of the Most Important People of the Century
In June 1999, Time magazine officially included Anne Frank in their special edition, called “Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century”. Anne’s name was listed among the “Heroes and Icons”.
Talking about Anne Frank, Roger Rosenblat, a Time writer, noted that Anne is admired not only for her courage and representation of the victims, but also for the quality of her writing and her ability to analyse her thoughts and emotions. Roger wrote:
Anne Frank Facts – Facts about Anne Frank Summary
Anne Frank facts tell a sad story of one of the most well-known Holocaust victims. Anne Frank grew up in a Jewish family. She and her family lived in hiding for almost two years before they were captured by the Nazis and sent to concentration camps. Her father was the only survivor after the end of World War 2, and it was he who published her diary after the war. There are still many mysteries about Anne Frank, including the time of her death, where she is buried, and just who the mysterious Kitty who she addressed in her diary is.